Technical Papers

Jenike & Johanson technical papers offer in depth analyses of various aspects of powder and bulk solids storage, handling, and processing.  Download an article today!


Chutes and Suitability

World Coal, August 2015

After having issues in their fuel feed chutes constantly shutting down their operation, Virginia City’s Hybrid Energy Center asked Jenike and Johanson to engineer a solution. After an onsite inspection and detailed computer modeling, practical design modifications were identified. After the redesigned chutes were installed, the chutes experienced no flow issues.


On Powder Flowability

Pharmaceutical Technology

The flow of powder in pharmaceutical processes dictates the quality of the product in terms of its weight and content uniformity. This article connects typical handling processes to flow property measurements that are essential to diagnose and avoid quality problems.


Six Steps to Designing a Storage Vessel that Really Works

Powder and Bulk Engineering

Flow problems often occur because of poorly designed equipment.  This article explains a methodical approach for designing, installing, and starting up equipment to achieve reliable flow.


Solve Solids Handling Problems by Retrofitting

Chemical Engineering Progress, June, 2001. Copyrights © 1992 and 1998 (respectively) American Institute of Chemical Engineers. All rights reserved. Not to be uploaded to any other site without written permission from the AIChE. Individual downloads are permitted so long as a fee of $15 per article is paid directly to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923.

Solutions to solids handling problems in existing systems are described.  Some problems are solved by modifying the hopper or feeder to convert the flow pattern from funnel flow to mass flow.  In other cases, chemical or mechanical flow aids are used.


Solve Solids Flow Problems in Bins, Hoppers, and Feeders

Chemical Engineering Progress, June, 2001.  Copyrights © 1992 and 1998 (respectively) American Institute of Chemical Engineers. All rights reserved.  Not to be uploaded to any other site without written permission from the AIChE.  Individual downloads are permitted so long as a fee of $15 per article is paid directly to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923.

The basic concepts of solids flow are discussed.  Flow patterns (mass flow and funnel flow), and obstructions to flow (arching and ratholing) are described.  Wall friction, cohesive strength, and permeability test results are used to design vessels for reliable flow.


Silo Failures: Case Histories and Lessons Learned

Presented at the Third Israeli Conference for Conveying and Handling of Particulate Solids, Israel.

A number of case studies involving silo failures are presented.  Case studies include failures due to errors in design, construction, and usage, as well as improper maintenance.  Lessons learned are detailed.


Understanding and Eliminating Particle Segregation Problems

Bulk Solids Handling

Quality of products composed of mixtures of particles can suffer when particles separate or segregate.  This article discusses various segregation mechanisms as well as techniques to solve segregation problems.


Fine Powder Flow Phenomena in Bins, Hoppers and Processing Vessels

Presented at Bulk 2000: Bulk Material Handling Towards the Year 2000, London.

Fine powders when handled in bins and processing vessels, can experience complex problems like flooding, discharge rate limitations, and unsteady flow.  These phenomena are explored and solutions to minimize if not eliminate these problems are discussed.


How to Design Efficient and Reliable Feeders for Bulk Solids

This article describes various types of feeders commonly used in bulk handling systems, and provides criteria for feeder selection and guidelines for design to ensure reliable operation.  The article also includes case histories.


Maintaining Product Uniformity and Uninterrupted Flow to Direct Compression Tablet Presses

Pharmaceutical Technology

Production of quality tablets requires consistent delivery of well-blended materials.  The problems resulting in downtime and lost production when transferring the material from a blender to a tableting press are discussed, as well as practical, cost-effective, and reliable solutions.


Successfully Scale Up Solids Handling

Chemical Engineering Progress (CEP), April. 2008.  Copyright © 2008 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

Scale up of solids handling processes should be done on the basis of theory or bench scale testing. This article presents mathematical models used for bulk solids and also describes bench scale tests.


When Powders Flow Like Water: Addressing Two-Phase Flow Effects In Tablet Press Feed Systems

Tablets & Capsules, March 2009.

Best Technical Article Bronze Award from the Minnesota Magazine & Publication Association

In tabletting processes, production rate limitations can develop when feeding fine powders (median particle diameter less than 100 microns), regardless whether it’s a direct-compression blend or a granulation.  Similar rate limitations can develop when feeding into capsule filling equipment, granulators, or mills.  This article focuses on diagnosing and rectifying feed rate limitations in tablet presses.


Preventive Medicine: Keys To Avoiding Powder Flow Problems

Tablets & Capsules, March 2007.

Manufacturing tablets and capsules involves several powder handling steps, including blending, transfer, storage, and feeding.  This article identifies powder handling problems, discusses the powder and equipment properties that cause problems, and offers some solutions.


Separation Anxiety: Addressing Variation In Content Uniformity Data In Compression Processes

Tablets & Capsules, March 2010.

Pharmaceutical scientists are responsible for developing formulas and designing processes that ensure the content uniformity of tablets and capsules.  Unfortunately, a number of scientists who formulate products and who select and/or design processing equipment lack in-depth understanding of powder blending and segregation.  As a result, processes may be developed that are not capable of providing the required content uniformity of the dosage units.  This article focuses on identifying and addressing variation in content uniformity.


Improve Solids Handling During Thermal Drying

Chemical Engineering Progress (CEP) November 2004 Copyright © 2004 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

This paper describes the challenges of handling pastes and other wet granular materials and provides recommendations for handling wet solids in drying processes.  Keys to ensuring uniform gas and solids velocities in gravity dryers are highlighted.